Golden Proportion

The Gender Divide: Understanding the Role of Bi-Gonional and Bi-Zygomatic Widths in Sexual Dimorphism


A smaller ratio of Bi-Gonional-Width to Bi-Zygomatic-Width is considered a feminine feature, while a larger ratio is a masculine one. The research discusses the role of bi-gonial width (jaw width) and bi-zygomatic width (cheekbone width) in defining gender-specific facial features, focusing on the differences between male and female facial structures. A slender lower face, characterized by a smaller jaw width relative to the cheekbone width, is typically perceived as a feminine feature. This perception is linked to societal and cultural notions of gender and beauty. Studies, including those by Jung et al. (2018) and Lakhiani & Somenek (2019), confirm these gender-linked facial attributes, noting that a smaller ratio of jaw width to cheekbone width—indicating a less robust, rounder or heart-shaped face—is generally considered feminine. Conversely, a larger jaw width, leading to a more angular or square-shaped face, is associated with masculinity. The studies also highlight a slight male preference for the more feminine, slender lower face.


When the bi-gonial width (lower face) is smaller relative to the bi-zygomatic width (upper face), it creates the appearance of a narrower or slender lower face. In general, this slender lower face is often perceived as a more feminine feature. This perception is related to societal and cultural notions of beauty and gender. For instance, a broader lower face, signifying a wider jaw, can be associated with masculine traits due to its connection to testosterone exposure. On the other hand, a narrower lower face, indicating a smaller jaw, is often linked to femininity.

According to the study by Jung et al. (2018), it was found that male respondents had a slight preference for a narrower lower face, suggesting a preference for what is typically considered more feminine facial characteristics. 

Moreover, the study by Lakhiani & Somenek (2019) refers to some of the key anthropometric (measurement of human body) differences between male and female faces. It mentions that the female face typically has more pronounced zygomatic prominences (cheekbones) and a smaller mandibular width (jaw width), leading to a rounder or heart-shaped face, and a more tapered chin.

In context, a smaller ratio of bi-gonial-width (jaw width) to bi-zygomatic-width (cheekbone width) means that the jaw width is small compared to the cheekbone width. This results in a rounder, heart-shaped face which is often associated with femininity. On the other hand, a larger jaw width compared to cheekbone width would lead to a more angular, square-shaped face, typically associated with masculinity.

So, a smaller ratio of bi-gonial-width to bi-zygomatic-width is considered a feminine feature because it indicates a less robust, more delicate facial structure characteristic of females.


Jung, G. H., Jung, S., Park, H. J., Oh, H. K., & Kook, M. S. (2018). Factors influencing perception of facial attractiveness: gender and dental education. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 29(2), e170-e175.

DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004241

Lakhiani, C., & Somenek, M. T. (2019). Gender-related facial analysis. Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics27(2), 171-177.

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