Golden Proportion

Why is a larger Bi-temporal width in comparison with Bi-Zygomatic width attractive among females

Bitemporal width, measured from the most lateral point on each side of the forehead. Bizygomatic width is defined as the distance between the most laterally positioned points on the zygomatic arches.

In the study “Geometric Morphometrics of Male Facial Shape in Relation to Physical Strength and Perceived Attractiveness, Dominance, and Masculinity” by Sonja Windhager at el (2011), Department of Anthropology, University of Vienna, Wien, Austria, carried out a statistical study examining the preferences of Seventy-nine woman using an experimental group of Twenty-six men which ranged from 18 to 32 years in age. The study concluded that “an unattractive face” consisted of “rounding of the lower face, a vertical stretching of […] the chin region, and a horizontal compression in the region of the eyes and eyebrows”

The study continues, “In a qualitative comparison study, Donofrio (2000) reported that a high amount of facial fat is often linked to a high body fat proportion”. “In a cross-cultural study, women rated an average (or mesomorphic) masculine body shape indicative of greater muscle mass as very attractive, whereas a disproportionately high body fat proportion (endomorphic) as least attractive (Dixson, 2009)”. “The attractive facial shape is comparably longer and more dolichocephalic than in very strong, dominant, and masculine-rated men”. “When perceived attractiveness is high, the lower jaw is narrower and not square and especially the lower lip is wider and fuller.”

Apart from attractiveness, according to the study “Valid facial cues to cooperation and trust: male facial width and trustworthiness” by Stirrat &Perrett (2010), the faces with shorter width are perceived as more trustworthy.


Windhager, S., Schaefer, K. and Fink, B., 2011. Geometric morphometrics of male facial shape in relation to physical strength and perceived attractiveness, dominance, and masculinity. American Journal of Human Biology. 23, 805-814.

Stirrat, M., Perrett, D. I., 2010. Valid Facial Cues to Cooperation and Trust: Male Facial Width and Trustworthiness. Psychological Science. 21 (3), 349-354. doi:10.1177/0956797610362647

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