Golden Proportion

Why is a smaller Bi-gonial width attractive among females?


Research has shown that a smaller bi-gonial width, the distance between the jaw’s two angles, is deemed attractive in females due to the resulting narrower facial appearance. Little et al. (2011) suggested a smaller bi-gonial width might be seen as attractive in females because it’s a pronounced female trait. Additionally, Jung et al. (2018) discovered that both male and female participants found a slimmer, tapered jawline or a more confined lower face attractive, associating it with feminine and aesthetic qualities. Lakhiani and Somenek (2019) added that a narrower mandibular width gives females a softer jaw angle, which is more obtuse by around 2.7 degrees compared to men, offering a gentler, feminine look. A 2022 study by Moradinejad et al. revealed that a narrower bi-gonial width, ideally less than the zygomatic width, is universally preferred. With 127 participants assessing images, professionals found a 72.53% intergonial to inter-zygomatic ratio most appealing, while the general public favored 74.45%, suggesting a universally narrower preference.


According to Little et al. (2011), smaller bi-gonial width is considered attractive among females because male and female faces have distinct shape differences. Mature features in adult faces indicate the masculinization or feminization due to secondary sexual characteristics that develop at puberty, influenced by hormones like testosterone. Larger jawbones, more pronounced cheekbones, and thinner cheeks are characteristics of male faces. Therefore, a smaller bi-gonial width might be seen as attractive in females because it’s a pronounced female trait.

Moreover, according to Jung et al. (2018), a smaller bi-gonial width (which refers to the distance between the two angles of the jaw) is considered attractive among females because it results in a narrower lower face. In this study, male respondents showed a slight preference for this facial feature, indicating that a more tapered jawline or narrower lower face might be perceived as more feminine or aesthetically pleasing. Additionally, female respondents preferred a vertically short and round lower face, which could be related to or complemented by a narrower bi-gonial width.

Another study suggested that a smaller bi-gonial width (indicative of a narrower mandibular width) is considered attractive among females because it contributes to a softer mandibular angle (Lakhiani and Somenek, 2019). As per this study, women generally have a more obtuse mandibular angle than men, by about 2.7 degrees. This more obtuse angle creates a softer transition from the mandibular body to the ramus, giving the jawline a more delicate and feminine appearance.

Moradinejad et al. (2022) conducted a study to ascertain the most attractive range of female intergonial widths, as perceived by orthodontists, oral maxillofacial surgeons, and the general public. The study engaged 127 participants who evaluated 33 Perceptometric face images, which were altered versions of frontal and three-quarter-view photos of a young woman. The results highlighted that professionals (orthodontists and surgeons) found an intergonial to inter-zygomatic ratio of 72.53% most attractive. In contrast, laypeople preferred a slightly greater ratio of 74.45%. The broad consensus was that the attractive range for this ratio varied between 72.53% and 86.03%.

This study underscores a general preference for a narrower intergonial (bi-gonial) width in females. A narrower face or more specifically, a smaller bi-gonial width, is deemed more attractive because it results in an ideal mandibular width for females that is less than the zygomatic width. The consensus from the study indicates that, universally, wider faces are perceived as less appealing across various evaluators, including surgeons, orthodontists, and the general public. The principles of lower third facial analysis suggest that a narrower mandibular width aligned with these findings is aesthetically preferred in females.


Little, A. C., Jones, B. C., & DeBruine, L. M. (2011). Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences366(1571), 1638-1659.

Jung, G. H., Jung, S., Park, H. J., Oh, H. K., & Kook, M. S. (2018). Factors influencing perception of facial attractiveness: gender and dental education. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 29(2), e170-e175.

Lakhiani, C., & Somenek, M. T. (2019). Gender-related facial analysis. Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics, 27(2), 171-177.

Moradinejad, M., Rekabi, A., Ashtiani, A. H., Atashkar, N., & Rakhshan, V. (2022). Psychometric and Perceptometric Comparisons of the Perspectives of Orthodontists, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, and Laypeople of Different Ages and Sexes towards Beauty of Female Jaw Angles (Intergonial Widths and Gonial Heights) on Frontal and Three-Quarter Views. BioMed Research International, 2022.

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