Golden Proportion

Why is a smaller Bi-gonial width compared to Bi-zygomatic width attractive among females?


Studies by Jung et al. (2018) and Moradinejad et al. (2022) suggest that the dimensions of the lower face play a significant role in perceptions of female attractiveness. The research revealed a preference for a smaller bi-gonial width (width across the jawline), typically equal to or up to 10% narrower than the bi-zygomatic width (broadest part of the face). Findings from the study of Moradinejad et al. (2022) indicate a consensus among various groups, including surgeons and the general public, favoring a narrower intergonial width in females. Participants evaluated Perceptometric face images, resulting in a preferred intergonial to inter-zygomatic ratio ranging from 72.53% to 86.03%. These studies emphasize the importance of lower facial proportions in influencing attractiveness perceptions.


The study by Jung et al. (2018) focused on how different aspects of lower facial contour, specifically the bi-gonial width (the width between the two lowest points of the mandible) and the vertical length of the lower face, impact the perception of female facial attractiveness. The study engaged 211 participants, including both male and female respondents, who were asked to rate a series of facial figures manipulated to reflect varying dimensions of the lower face.

The results revealed a clear preference for the standard figure, embodying a smaller bi-gonial width as compared to the bi-zygomatic width (the distance between the two cheekbones). Interestingly, facial figures with larger bi-gonial width and chin length received the lowest scores.

These findings illuminate the nuanced role of lower facial dimensions in influencing perceptions of attractiveness. Specifically, they suggest that a smaller bi-gonial width relative to the bi-zygomatic width is perceived as more attractive among females. 

According to another study, the width across the jawline, known as the bi-gonial width, is typically equal to or up to 10% narrower than the bi-zygomatic width, which represents the broadest part of the face. 

According to Moradinejad et al. (2022), the unanimous preference by surgeons, orthodontists, and the general public for a narrower intergonial width in females. The consensus demonstrates that wider faces are deemed less attractive across these diverse groups of evaluators. As per the principles of lower third facial analysis, it is often proposed that an ideal mandibular width for females is less than the zygomatic width.

This study aimed to determine the most attractive range of female intergonial widths, as perceived by orthodontists, oral maxillofacial surgeons, and laypeople of different ages and sexes. The research involved 127 participants who evaluated 33 Perceptometric face images, generated through modifications to frontal and three-quarter-view photographs of a young woman. Findings showed that orthodontists and surgeons rated an intergonial to inter-zygomatic ratio of 72.53% as the most attractive, while laypeople favored a slightly higher ratio of 74.45%. The overall range of attractive intergonial to inter-zygomatic ratios was from 72.53% to 86.03%.


Jung, G.H., Jung, S., Park, H.J., Oh, H.K. and Kook, M.S., 2018. Factors influencing perception of facial attractiveness: gender and dental education. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 29(2), pp.e170-e175. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004241

Aiache, A.E., 1992. Mandibular angle implants. Aesthetic plastic surgery, 16, pp.349-354.

Moradinejad, M., Rekabi, A., Ashtiani, A. H., Atashkar, N., & Rakhshan, V. (2022). Psychometric and Perceptometric Comparisons of the Perspectives of Orthodontists, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, and Laypeople of Different Ages and Sexes towards Beauty of Female Jaw Angles (Intergonial Widths and Gonial Heights) on Frontal and Three-Quarter Views. BioMed Research International, 2022.

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