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Face Beauty Research

For centuries people have been trying to figure out what it is that makes someone more beautiful than others. There is no simple answer to this question. We often hear the phrase, “beauty is in the eye of the beholder”. However, is it possible that there are certain features that are recognized as beautiful universally around the world? Kalology is the study of facial beauty and the way in which our beauty affects our lifestyle and role in society. For beginners, I recommend you to read the following post to understand the basics of facial beauty.

In this study, we are going to explore what makes one face more beautiful than others and how artificial intelligence can assist us in processing our features.

Statistical Analysis, AI, and beauty

The ever-evolving technology and knowledge derived from a range of studies have paved the way for various statistical analysis and artificial intelligence tools to be designed to assist with identifying the level of beauty in human faces.
To find out more about the work process of these particular machines, we are going to explore an AI beauty analyser Pinkmirror, which determines your attractiveness score based on the analysis of your face. This tool works by automatically extracting geometric measurements of your facial features from images. The results of the analysis are based on the machine’s judgment, which was designed with the help of research and data of associated rating scores from different parts of the world.
PinkMirror beauty analysis lays the foundation on three aesthetic principles, which originate from the NeoClassical era – The “Rule of Fifths”, the “Rule of Thirds” and the “Rule of Seventy Seven”.

  • The Rule of Fifths states that an aesthetically balanced face can be divided vertically into fifths which in turn are all roughly the width of one eye. In addition to that, the width of the base of the nose is equal to the distance between the eyes.
  • The Rule of Thirds is based on a formula developed by Leonardo da Vinci, which states that a balanced face can be divided vertically into three equal parts. The top part starts from the hairline to the top of the eyebrows, the middle part from the top of the brows to the bottom of the nose, and the third part is from the bottom of the nose to the bottom of the chin.

Apart from Face structural analysis, there are more parameters that influence the perception of beauty. Skin health, Skin Tone, Skin Clarity, and hair management. Skin Tone: Skin quality which is mostly even across the face. Skin Clarity: Lesser spots and wrinkles. The radiance of the skin showoff the health of the person.

Dr.Stephen R . Marquardt Beauty Mask
Image Courtesy: https://www.beautyanalysis.com/beauty-and-you/you-and-the-mask/repose-lateral-mask-application

Face Structure Analysis

In the below two faces, which among them do you think is beautiful? For both faces, the skin quality and expressions are the same. Then what makes the difference between these two faces?

Attractive vs Non-Attractive Face Structure

To answer this question, we studied 100,000 faces and extracted statistical information on facial features. The aspects which make a big impact on facial attraction are provided in the below table. The attractive facial features are gender specific. For female, the features that make the most impact is Bitemporal-to-Bizygomatic Ratio, Eye canthal tilt, Bigonion-to-Bizygomatic Ratio, Lower Lip Height, Chin Length-to-Philtrum Length Ratio, Chin Angle, and Mouth Width to Nose Width Ratio. For a male face, it is Bitemporal To Bizygomatic Ratio, Mouth Width To Nose Width Ratio, Nose Width, and Upper Lip To Lower Lip Ratio. Refer below table for more detailed information.

Female Attractive Features

Feature NameRemarksEffectivenessIdeal PCI Value
Bitemporal To Bizygoma RatioLarger101.0415
Eye Canthal Tilt AngleLarger8.714.2114
Chin Length To Philtrum Length RatioSmaller7.32.2876
Eye Width To Height RatioSmaller72.6417
Interpupillary Width To Bizygomatic Width RatioLarger6.70.4888
Bigonion To Bizygoma RatioSmaller6.70.7022
Mouth Width To Nose Width RatioLarger6.51.5034
Chin AngleSmaller6.4128.7244
Lip Lower HeightLarger6.333.2243
Lip Upper HeightLarger5.535.895
Nose WidthSmaller5.2181.4405
Eye Average HeightLarger4.760.8911
Eyetobrow Inside DistanceLarger4.4101.3852
Chin LengthSmaller4.4148.7754
Bizygoma To Mid Face Height RatioSmaller4.21.7199
Jaw Average AngleLarger3.5154.7037
Subnasale Stomion To Stomion Chin RatioLarger3.50.4798
Face Height Middle Third To Lower Third RatioLarger3.41.6106
Brow Average LengthLarger2.8202.9699
Eye Average LengthLarger2.7153.7138
Mouth LengthSmaller2.7270.7904
Brow Average ThicknessLarger2.430.7468
Brow External DistanceLarger2.4575.1225
Eye External DistanceLarger2.3488.8263
Upper Lip To Lower Lip RatioSmaller1.91.0769
Bitemporal WidthLarger1.8712.9662
Brow Average Curve AngleSmaller1.7158.6125
Eye Internal DistanceLarger1.7184.3636
Nose LengthLarger1.7260.858
Nose AngleLarger1.5148.2872
Philtrum Length To Mouth Length RatioLarger1.50.2509
Eyetobrow Outside DistanceLarger1.396.0725
Mid Face HeightLarger1.2400.7244
Nose Length To Philtrum Length RatioSmaller1.24.013
Brow Internal DistanceLarger0.9172.5357
Bigonial WidthSmaller0.8478.9656
Bizygoma WidthLarger0.3684.2401
Philtrum LengthSmaller0.267.0617
Bizygoma To Face Height RatioLarger0.11.056
Lateral Canthus To Alar AngleSmaller050.2114

Male Attractive Features

Feature NameRemarksEffectivenessIdeal PCI Value
Bitemporal To Bizygoma RatioLarger101.0437
Mouth Width To Nose Width RatioLarger8.11.402
Nose WidthSmaller7196.9517
Interpupillary Width To Bizygomatic Width RatioSmaller5.90.4641
Eye Canthal Tilt AngleLarger5.57.6577
Eyetobrow Outside DistanceSmaller5.481.8682
Philtrum Length To Mouth Length RatioLarger5.10.3026
Lip Upper HeightSmaller4.932.378
Chin AngleSmaller4.8131.8199
Chin Length To Philtrum Length RatioSmaller4.42.3718
Mouth LengthSmaller3.8275.2024
Nose Length To Philtrum Length RatioSmaller3.73.3537
Upper Lip To Lower Lip RatioSmaller3.71.1569
Brow Average ThicknessSmaller334.8482
Eye Internal DistanceSmaller3182.6981
Lip Lower HeightSmaller328.3403
Lateral Canthus To Alar AngleLarger2.850.8879
Eye Width To Height RatioSmaller2.62.8973
Eyetobrow Inside DistanceSmaller2.389.3334
Nose AngleSmaller2.1148.6552
Eye Average HeightSmaller252.0301
Brow Internal DistanceSmaller1.9168.8763
Eye External DistanceSmaller1.9477.0516
Mid Face HeightSmaller1.5410.0199
Bizygoma To Face Height RatioLarger1.51.0282
Subnasale Stomion To Stomion Chin RatioSmaller1.40.4588
Bigonial WidthSmaller1.3506.9601
Eye Average LengthSmaller1.2147.8659
Bizygoma WidthSmaller1.1704.5795
Bigonion To Bizygoma RatioSmaller10.7213
Philtrum LengthLarger0.882.5533
Brow Average Curve AngleLarger0.7158.4599
Brow External DistanceSmaller0.6581.904
Face Height Middle Third To Lower Third RatioLarger0.61.4866
Bitemporal WidthLarger0.3736.2539
Nose LengthSmaller0.3268.4474
Jaw Average AngleSmaller0.3153.6105
Bizygoma To Mid Face Height RatioSmaller0.31.7309
Chin LengthSmaller0.2191.4794
Brow Average LengthSmaller0207.8034

Unisex Attractive Features

Feature NameRemarksEffectivenessIdeal PCI Value
Eye Canthal Tilt AngleLarger1012.8839
Bitemporal To Bizygoma RatioLarger9.51.0428
Mouth Width To Nose Width RatioLarger8.91.4774
Nose WidthSmaller7.7181.0578
Chin AngleSmaller7129.4383
Eye Width To Height RatioSmaller6.82.6814
Chin Length To Philtrum Length RatioSmaller6.72.307
Chin LengthSmaller5.5158.6112
Bigonion To Bizygoma RatioSmaller5.50.7079
Upper Lip To Lower Lip RatioSmaller4.41.092
Face Height Middle Third To Lower Third RatioLarger4.41.5867
Mouth LengthSmaller4.3266.5676
Bizygoma To Face Height RatioLarger3.11.0534
Brow Average ThicknessSmaller2.831.0712
Lip Lower HeightLarger2.431.1745
Interpupillary Width To Bizygomatic Width RatioLarger2.40.4808
Bizygoma To Mid Face Height RatioSmaller2.41.7285
Bigonial WidthSmaller2.3482.2323
Philtrum LengthSmaller2.270.2458
Eye Average HeightLarger257.0436
Subnasale Stomion To Stomion Chin RatioLarger1.90.4731
Eyetobrow Outside DistanceSmaller1.589.8257
Jaw Average AngleLarger1.5154.187
Eyetobrow Inside DistanceLarger1.495.9381
Eye Internal DistanceSmaller1.4180.9958
Philtrum Length To Mouth Length RatioLarger1.40.268
Bizygoma WidthSmaller1.3683.222
Mid Face HeightSmaller1.1397.11
Lateral Canthus To Alar AngleLarger1.150.6137
Brow Internal DistanceSmaller1168.2486
Nose AngleSmaller0.9147.9367
Eye Average LengthLarger0.5149.966
Brow Average LengthLarger0.4201.9581
Eye External DistanceSmaller0.3478.3444
Nose LengthSmaller0.3259.787
Nose Length To Philtrum Length RatioLarger0.23.8286
Bitemporal WidthLarger0.1713.3418
Brow Average Curve AngleSmaller0.1158.5797
Brow External DistanceSmaller0568.9826
Lip Upper HeightLarger033.8387

The Effectiveness score is calculated based on the impact on attractiveness. This is scored separately for females and males because each feature has a different impact on each gender.

The unit used in this chart is PCI (Photographic Canthal Index).

To further evaluate the findings of this software, we are going to analyze a list of celebrities it created based on their beauty score, both males and females. We will be looking at possible reasons for listing them this way, taking into account symmetry, face shapes, skin quality, makeup, and/or other facial features.

The top 5 celebrity female faces with the highest beauty score

As we can see from the figure above, we can see that amongst the top 5 most beautiful female celebrities, the predominant shapes in the top 5 are heart and triangle. The similarities found between heart and triangle shapes are wider forehead and narrower lower part of the face, starting from cheekbones down towards the jawline.
The skin quality observed amongst the women is exceptionally smooth, with no apparent marks or distinctive characteristics.
The makeup is done in a way that complements their faces, the most common and being contouring and shading in the temple areas. This is suggested to reduce the width of the forehead for these particular shapes.
Furthermore, Shay Mitchell and Emma Watson have contour around their jawline to make it appear slimmer and reduce the sharpness. The main goal for the triangle shape is to make the face look longer and a little rounder, to balance out the proportions of the face.
On the other hand, the celebrities with the heart-shaped faces, such as Rosie Huntington Whiteley, Kate Upton, and Reese Witherspoon, have implemented slightly different techniques to enhance the overall appearance. For example, they have highlighted the jaw and chin areas with lighter foundation in order to create an illusion of more width.
Overall, their facial features and structure are symmetrical to the eye, with no extreme angles or sizes.

The top 5 celebrity male faces with the highest beauty score

Looking at figure above, we can see that amongst the top 5 most beautiful male celebrities, the best looking shapes according to AI are rectangle and heart.

The rectangle face shape is observed to be symmetrical due to the width of the forehead, cheekbones, and jawline being almost equal. In contrast, the heart shape presents prominent cheekbones, a wide forehead, and a narrow chin.
The go-to hairstyle for these particular celebrities is shorter sides and a longer top.
The overall facial build looks symmetrical to the eye with no distinctive irregularities.
Standout features that can be noted are a prominent jawline, wide forehead, and a short stubble or no beard at all.
The skin quality is smooth with no particular marks.

Face shape

The shape of the face is determined by the bone structure of the skull. Furthermore, research shows that the structure and shape stem from genetic variations [14].

Knowing and understanding the shape of the face has become an important piece of knowledge in the beauty world. Based on your shape, you can pick out the most flattering hairstyle, a pair of glasses, and what to accent when doing makeup.

Over the years, multiple variants of shapes have been suggested as the ones that could fit the whole population of our planet. Today, scientists have identified nine distinct shapes.

Although according to various sources, the shapes and names show slight dissimilarities, the following general shapes can be outlined: round, square, oblong, heart, diamond, triangle, rectangle, pear, and oval.

If unsure which one applies to you in particular, you can figure out yours from Figure 1. There are also numerous websites and tools online that can help you figure out your face shape [15].

Find face shape

Based on the beauty score of female celebrities, the most attractive face shape for females is Triangle. Oval is a commonly accepted face shape. Heart, Round, Diamond Rectangle, and Square face shapes are generally accepted face shapes. However, Pear and Oblong face shapes are not considered attractive.

The target of the makeup/style should be as follows. Pear and Oblong face shapes need to look Oval shape to improve their attractiveness. Rest all face shapes needs to look like Triangle face shape.

Attractive Female Face Shape

Based on the beauty score of male celebrities, the most attractive face shapes for males are Rectangle and Heart. Oval, Diamond, Round, Square, and Triangle face shapes are generally accepted face shapes. However, Pear and Oblong face shapes are not considered attractive.

The target of the makeup/style should be as follows. Pear and Oblong face shapes need to look Oval shape to improve their attractiveness. Rest all face shapes needs to look like Rectangle face shape.

Attractive Male Face Shape

Find your face shape on Pinkmirror.com instantly with AI-powered tools.

Femininity vs Masculinity

Feminine and masculine facial features are generally perceived as being distinct and different from one another.  Common characteristics that are often associated with feminine facial features include:

  • Upturned Eyes
  • An oval or triangle face shape
  • Shorter Chin Length
  • Thinner Eyebrows
  • Longer Nose Length To Philtrum Length Ratio
  • Full lips
  • High cheekbones
  • A smaller chin
  • Large, round eyes
  • Smooth, clear skin
  • A smaller nose
  • A narrow jawline

Some common characteristics that are often associated with masculine facial features include:

  • Lower Eye Canthal Tilt
  • A Rectangular face shape
  • Longer Chin Length
  • Thicker Eyebrows
  • Shorter Nose Length To Philtrum Length Ratio
  • A strong, prominent jawline
  • A larger nose
  • A larger brow bone
  • A receding hairline
  • A thicker neck
  • Facial hair, such as a beard or mustache

What defines female features and male features?

Feature NameFemaleMaleEffectiveness
Eye Canthal Tilt AngleLargerSmaller10
Chin LengthSmallerLarger9.7
Brow Average ThicknessSmallerLarger8.7
Nose Length To Philtrum Length RatioLargerSmaller8.6
Philtrum LengthSmallerLarger7.1
Philtrum Length To Mouth Length RatioSmallerLarger6.9
Mouth Width To Nose Width RatioLargerSmaller6.7
Face Height Middle Third To Lower Third RatioLargerSmaller6.6
Bigonion To Bizygoma RatioSmallerLarger5.4
Bizygoma To Face Height RatioLargerSmaller5.3
Upper Lip To Lower Lip RatioSmallerLarger4.7
Eye Width To Height RatioLargerSmaller4.6
Chin AngleSmallerLarger4.4
Nose WidthSmallerLarger4.3
Eyetobrow Outside DistanceLargerSmaller3.9
Bigonial WidthSmallerLarger3.9
Brow Average LengthSmallerLarger3.7
Brow Average Curve AngleLargerSmaller3.7
Interpupillary Width To Bizygomatic Width RatioLargerSmaller3.6
Nose LengthSmallerLarger2.9
Bitemporal WidthSmallerLarger2.8
Brow External DistanceSmallerLarger2.8
Eye Average HeightLargerSmaller2.7
Bizygoma WidthSmallerLarger2.7
Lip Upper HeightSmallerLarger2.6
Mid Face HeightSmallerLarger2.3
Eye Internal DistanceSmallerLarger2.1
Mouth LengthSmallerLarger1.6
Eye External DistanceSmallerLarger1.5
Eyetobrow Inside DistanceLargerSmaller1.4
Subnasale Stomion To Stomion Chin RatioLargerSmaller1.4
Bitemporal To Bizygoma RatioSmallerLarger1.1
Nose AngleSmallerLarger1
Eye Average LengthSmallerLarger0.8
Lateral Canthus To Alar AngleSmallerLarger0.6
Jaw Average AngleLargerSmaller0.5
Chin Length To Philtrum Length RatioLargerSmaller0.5
Lip Lower HeightLargerSmaller0.4
Brow Internal DistanceSmallerLarger0.1
Bizygoma To Mid Face Height RatioLargerSmaller0

Outcome

Based on the overall outcome of the analysis and measuring criteria, we can outline a few feasible reasons for the AI beauty tool to list those celebrities in that particular order.

  • The skin quality is good, with no visible marks or noticeable imperfections.
  • The hair and makeup choices complement the face shape.
  • All the shapes have distinguishable angles. For example, a noticeable jawline, prominent cheekbones, or a pointy chin. However, they do not stand out from the overall appearance.

Apart from this, the tool itself is entertaining to use, and it could potentially give a person some insight into what their facial features signal to the outside world. Additionally, it can give people an idea of how to balance out the overall features visually with the help of makeup, hairstyles, or glasses.

Conclusion

Beauty has been a subject of interest for centuries. With extensive amounts of research done over the years and outlined in this study, we have learned that there is no single constructing factor that can determine whether someone can be equally attractive to every single person. Furthermore, there is no doubt that there is a wide range of new-age software that can do a lot of groundwork for humans by reading faces and extracting information.

Reference list

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23 http://www.beautyanalysis.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/jco_2002-06-339.pdf

24 https://www.intmath.com/blog/mathematics/is-she-beautiful-the-new-golden-ratio-4149

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